• USING ENGLISH SONG TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY BY COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT) METHOD
    (A Classroom Action Research at the First Grade Students of Islamic Senior High School ( MAN ) Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017).
    RIZKI KURNIAWAN (113-13-071)

    A. The Background of Study
    Vocabulary is one of the essential language components in studying english. It is necessary in the sense that words are basic building block of language, the unit of meaning from which larger structures such as sentences, paragraphs and whole texts are formed (Read, 2000:1). If people have less vocabulary, they not only cannot understand other’s saying, but also cannot make sentences to transfer their messages to the other people. Thus, they will understand english expressions if they have enough vocabularies.
    Vocabulary is needed to improve the four basic language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Without grammar, very little can be conveyed. Without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed (Thornbarry, 2002:13). When we just learn about grammar without learning vocabulary, we cannot express anything. The linguist David Wilkins sum up importance of vocabulary learning he advise to students from a recent course book (Dellar H and Hocking D), lnnovation LTP) as follows:
    “If you spend most of your time studying grammar, your english will not improve very much. You will see most improvement, if you learn more words and expression you can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words!” (Thornburry, 2002: 13).
    Generally, in order to master english well and able to express their ideas, the students have to master sufficient vocabulary because it is very important for them to master the four skills of english. According to fauziati (2002: 155), vocabulary is central to language and of critical importance to typical language learner.
    Learning of vocabulary is not only from text books but it can be learned by other ways such as by listening the songs, especially english.According to Mustikassari (2011), “It is a good idea if teacher can provide something fresh that can make the student enjoy the learning process.” In a fact that the students often listen the english songs, they can enrich their vocabularies little be little because they will get many unfamilliar words and if they are interested in those songs they might look for the meaning of those words, and automatically they can increase their vocabularies. Based on the explanation, in the classroom of first grade students of MAN Salatiga year 2016/2017, The researcher found that students got difficulties in in vocabulary mastery like pronunciation, spelling, meaning and memorize the words. However, they should have good vocabulary mastery. Realizing this lack the writer thinks that listening habit of english songs is really good way for students to enrich their vocabularies. Not only enrich their vocabulary, but also open up their minds about their culture, certain expression and how to say something that can not only learned by studying english grammar.
    This fact will open their minds that they should learn from many different sources if they want to get success in learning english. Based on those explanations, the writer here is interested in searching the influence of listening habit of english songs toward vocabulary mastery. The writer tries to conduct a research in titled USING ENGLISH SONG TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY BY COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT) METHOD (A Classroom Action Research at the First Grade Students of Islamic Senior High School ( MAN ) Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017).
    B. Statement of the Problem
    Based on the above phenomenona, the problems of this research are:
    1. How far the use of English song can improve the students’ interest in studying English?
    2. How is the improvement of the students’ vocabulary mastery using Communicative Language Teaching Method?
    3. What are the strength and weakness use english song to improve the vocabulary mastery?
    C. Methodology of Research
    1. Approach.
    In this research the writer uses a quantitative approach. According to Margono (2005:106), quantitative is a process of getting knowledge by using a number of data as instruments to have explanations about what will we know. The writer uses quantitative approach and using number as the data, compute the data and then explain the result of computation to answer the objective of the research.
    2. Population and Sample.
    a. Population
    Population is all of the research (Sukandarrumidi, 2004:47). The population in this research is the first year students of MAN Salatiga in academic year of 2016/2017. The total number of population is 30 students, that is consist of 25 male students and 5 female students.
    b. Sample
    Sample is part of total population having heterogeneous characteristic (Sugiyono, 2007:620). The writer uses all of the first year students of MAN Salatiga in academic year of 2016/2017 as sample.
    3. Method of data collection
    a. Test
    Test is a measurement which is given to individual to get answer by written, oral or act answer (Sudjana, 1989:100). The writer uses vocabulary pre-test and post-test to know vocabulary mastery of the students.

    b. Documentation
    It is finding data about variables is notes, recording cassette, video, picture and others (Sukanarrumidi, 2004:101). This method is used to know about condition, teachers, students and location of MAN Salatiga.
    4. Data Analysis
    To calculate the data obtained, the writer uses t-test formula. T-test formula is used to know a significant influence of the research. The formula as follow:
    a. SD (Deviation Standard)
    Where,
    D S = Deviation Standard for one sample t-test
    D = Difference between pre test and post test
    N = Number of observations in sample

    b. T-test
    Where,
    to = T-test for the differences of pre test and post test
    D S = Deviation standard for one sample t-test
    D = Difference between pre test and post test
    N = Number of observations in sample

    REFERENCES
    Fauziati, E. 2005. Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Surakarta: Muhammadiyah University
    Grolier. 1981. The Grolier International Dictionary. Maynord Massachutes Inc. United States of America
    Hornby. 1985. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English. New
    York: Oxford University Press.
    Read, John. 2000. Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Richard, Jack C. 2003. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Styawan, Anwar Harif. 2011. The Use of Hot Seat Game to Improve Students Vocabulary Mastery of the First Grade of Sekolah Menengah Pertama Negeri (SMP N) 2 Suruh 2010/2011. Salatiga: Institute of Islamic Studies of Salatiga.
    Thornbury, S. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Malaysia: Bluestone Press.
    Zulianti. 2006. The Influence of Listening Habits of English Songs Toward Vocabulary Mastery. Salatiga: Institute of Islamic Studies of Salatiga.

    No Comments
  • “Boosting Students’ Writing Mastery using Authentic Material in Cooperative Learning” (A Classroom Action Research).
    Created by M Farid Kurniawan 113-13-063 D Class Background of the Research Language cannot be separated from human life. Even language is often used by human life in every activity, so it can be said that interaction is not happened without language as the medium. The activities that human life’s doing are like gathering, playing, and giving information using language as the medium. Language is a human method to express the ideas, feelings, and ability with own pleasure. Language has an important role in society as a communication tool. Language enables people to acquire information, knowledge, communicate and cooperate along with others. As Parker (1986:12) argues that what people have to do in communication is how they use language to communicate rather than the way of language is structured internally. However, language cannot be acquired spontaneously but it needs to be learnt. Just as a baby they cannot speak as they were born, but they learn by imitating their parent and others. That’s why language needs to be learnt in order to make communication and interaction happen properly. In fact, learning a language is learning to communicate so that language learning should be directed to improve the learner’s ability to communicate and its success is measured from how well the learner’s use the language itself. English as one of the international languages in the world should be mastered by people from many countries in the world to communicate each other. They may know and understand what they speak communicatively because of English. Because of the reason, English becomes the first foreign language that is taught in Indonesia from elementary school up to college. Putri (2013: 2) said that learning English means learning four language skills and its components. The language skills are listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and its components are grammar, vocabulary, and sounds system. Writing is one basic skill in learning English beside listening, speaking, and reading. To write means to communicate using written language. In writing, all information is delivered through text. Writing means producing or creating a piece of text. Writing needs an ability to organize sentences into good text. Writing also needs a lot of vocabulary mastery in order to reduce the possibility in the lack of words when they are writing sentence, paragraph, or text. It needs right language using in order the message of the writer can be received as appropriate as the reader understand of that written form. It needs a right punctuation using in order the reader catches the purposes and meanings as suitable as the writer hope and the last is the content. This is the most important part that the writer should master it. A good writer will make a good content of writing in order all of the messages that she or he means are accepted as appropriate as to the readers. In the writing learning process, students need to understand all of the factors above to make good writing. It needs more practices in writing so the students get used to write anything they can. Writing becomes one of the students’ difficulties in English language learning besides speaking moreover in MTsT Al-Mustaqim. According from the English teacher of MTsT Al-Mustaqim, Mrs. Faizah, students have difficulties in creating a good content, organizing several sentences into good paragraph, and language use. She said that the students there are lack of the ability in creating good content. Actually, content is the most important part that should be paid attention. An integrated content that the writer creates should be understood by the readers. When the writer creates a bad content, the readers will not get the messages of the writing well. She said that the students there are poor in organizing several sentences into good paragraph. When they listen the word “paragraph”, their assumptions are directly changed from English is easy to be learnt up to very terrible thing to be done. They feel so afraid to arrange words into sentences, sentences into paragraph, and paragraph into text. They are worry to make a trouble on it. This fear should be missed from their thought in order they are able to become a good writer.
    MTsT Al-Mustaqim is one of the Islamic Junior High School which is located in the village. It makes students don’t have motivation to master the English especially in writing. Their assumption that English is difficult and writing is also, are still develop in that environment. The students become afraid in telling their ideas, trying to organizing sentences, and wrong using the language. In this school, the teacher needs an appropriate strategy to overcome this problem.
    Seeing these conditions, the writer finally have an idea to improve the learning by applying techniques cooperative learning and the authentic material; because the students can flock possessed the confidence to express something without having fear. In addition, the group learning, students can also improve invitation to Speak and authentic material is an excellent medium to writing skill. Based on the reasons stated above, the writer takes a title of this graduating paper“Boosting Students’ Writing Mastery using Authentic Material in Cooperative Learning” (A Classroom Action Research).
    Problems of the Study
    Based on the research background, the writer formulates some the statements of the problem as follows:
    How is the implementation of Cooperative Learning method to improve students’ writing skill of the second years students of MTsT Al-Mustaqim Susukan in the academic year 2016/ 2017?
    How is the students’ writing skill improvement after being taught using Cooperative Learning method of the second year’s students of MTsT Al-Mustaqim Susukan in the aacademic year 2016/ 2017?
    Methodology
    Research methodology is science that learns about research method or research instrument (Sofanudin, 2009:35). The method used in this research was classroom action research. As stated by Kemmis that Action Research is a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situation in order to improve the rationality and justices, their understanding of these practices and the situations in which the practices are carried out; (Hopkins, 1993: 44)
    Elliot (1982) cited in Richard (1989) states that action research might be defined as the study of a social situation with a view to improving the quality of action within it. Applying classroom action research is intended to give new information and knowledge to the teacher and students in MTsT Al-Mustaqim.
    Classroom Action Research is a method of finding out what works best in our own classroom so that we can improve student learning. But every teaching situation is unique in terms of content, level, student skills and learning styles, teacher skills and teaching styles, and many other factors. To maximize student learning, a teacher must find out what works best in a particular situation.
    There are many ways to improve knowledge about teaching. Many teacher practice personal reflection on teaching; that is they look back at what has worked and has not worked in the classroom and think about how they can change their teaching strategies to enhance learning (Hole and McEntee, 1999:78) provide useful steps for teaching such reflection. A few teachers conduct formal empirical studies on teaching and learning, adding to our knowledge base.
    CAR fits in the center of a continuum ranging from personal reflection at one to formal education research at the other. CAR is more systematic and data-base than personal reflection, but it is more informal and personal than formal education research. In CAR, a teachers focus attention on a problem or question about they own classroom.
    CAR goes beyond personal reflection to use informal research practice such as a brief literature review, group comparisons, data collection and analysis. Validity is achieved through triangulation of data. The focus is on the practical significance of findings, rather than statistical or theoretical significance, finding are usually disseminate through brief reports or presentations to local colleagues or administrators.

    Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1998. Metode Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Rhineka Cipta
    Chavez. 1998. Learner’s Perspectives on Authenticity. New York: Addison- Wesley Longman.
    Cheng Wu,I (2001). The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning: London
    Guariento, W. & Morley, J. 2001. Text and Task Authenticity in the EFL Classroom. Oxford Journal, Oxford University Press, 2001, ELT Journal.
    Halimah. RH .2013. The graduating of the effect of using authentic materials on the tenth grade students’ reading comprehension achievement at MA Islamiyah Syafi’iyah Sumberanyar-Paiton in the 2012-2013 academic year. Jember. Jember University
    Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Longman
    Harris, John. 1993. Introducing Writing. London: Penguin Group.
    Kagan. S. 1989. The Structural Approach to Cooperative Learning. EFL Journal, (2-5)

    No Comments
  • THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DICTOGLOSS TECHNIQUE IN

    TEACHING WRITING OF NARRATIVE TEXT

    ( A Study at The First Grade Students of SMKN 1 Tengaran The Academic Year of 2015/2016)

    Demcy ayu barawati (113-13-083) E

    1. Background of the Study

    Everyone has learned their language since they were children, especially their mother tongue. The process is occurs naturally to communicate in society environment. Language is a system of symbols through which people communicate. According to Charles (1998)” The symbols may be spoken, written, or signed with the hands”. The result without language it is hard to communication.

    English is one of language that has been learned in the world. In the global area, English takes an important role as communication language used in many sector of life, such as education, politics, science, economics, technology, social aspect, cultural aspect, and many others. English has become the familiar language for many people over the world to connect and share with another. As a result, people should understand and master English in order to gain broader knowledge, information and technology.

    In Indonesia government, English is considered as the first foreign language which taught formally from the junior high school to university level. According to Nurmayanti (2008) “English is taught formally in high school as a compulsory subject, even now the elementary schools have begun to introduce English in their curriculum”. Therefore, in this case the English teachers have to consider how to motivate and interest the student in learning English language. The teacher should focus on the motivation because English has been a requirement subject to pass National Examination. According to Fox (1998) as quoted by Mustikasari (2011:36) “Motivation is always a key issue in the field of education. As instructors, we are all naturally attempting to present a system of education that is intrinsically motivating rather than one in which the motivation comes from outside influences”.

    In learning language there are have four skills which have to be mastered by students. They are reading, writing, listening, and speaking. If they can develop their four English skills the students have to master English language well. Writing is one of the important skills in learning language English. In addition, people actually will have to perform their writing skill throughout their life for academic and occupational purposes such as composing simple stories, writing letters, reports, papers, and theses.

    However, students often think that writing is not easy and simple to do. According to Harmer (2007:113) as quoted by Mustikasari (2001:51-52) “Many students either think or say that they cannot, or do not want to write. This could be happened because they lack confidence, think it’s boring or believe they have nothing to say.” In addition the students often think that writing is to learn and be able to write some types of texts in English. English syllabus in Curriculum 2013 for first grade students of Senior High School, there are some text types that should be learned. One of those texts is narrative text.

    Narrative text is a text that tells about story or event that happened in the past time. There are some kinds of narrative text such as adventure, fairy tale, fantasy, fable, myth, legend. The students generally think that writing a narrative text is difficult because students do not know how to get started their writing. They feel difficulty to get ideas to write so they cannot write. From those problem researcher wants to use “Dictogloss technique”.

    Dictogloss is different with the traditional dictation in which the teacher reads the text slowly and repeatedly and asks students to write. According to Ruth Wajnryb (Oxford University Press, 1990)” Dictogloss is a new way to do dictation developed”. The use Dictogloss students can learn and train to write good paragraph. Students are given much time to interact with their group during learning. Moreover, students also can decrease their anxiety in learning writing because they work in a group. Using Dictogloss technique to learn writing may give some benefits for the learners.

    From the explanation above, the researcher is interested to conduct the research entitle “THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DICTOGLOSS TECHNIQUE INTEACHING WRITING OF NARRATIVE TEXT (A Study at The First Grade Students of SMKN 1 Tengaran the Academic Year of 2015/2016)”.

    2. Problem of Study

    a. How can the use of The Effectiveness of Dictogloss Technique in Teaching Writing of Narrative Text?

    b. How far does The Effectiveness of Dictogloss Technique in Teaching Writing of Narrative Text?

    c. How is the implementation of The Effectiveness of Dictogloss Technique in Teaching Writing of Narrative Text?

     

    3. Methodology

    a. Subject of Study

    The subjects of research are the students of class ten RPL 1 and RPL 2 of SMKN 1 TENGARAN in Academic Year of 2016/2017. They consist of 62 students. The researcher, act as an English teacher, take this class as the subjects of the research.

    b.  Research Design

    The method of this study is quantitative method, and use experimental research. According to Wiersma and Jurs (Boston:Pearson Education,Inc., 2009), “experiment is a research situation in which at least one independent variable, called experimental variable, deliberately manipulated or varied by the researcher to determine its effect “.From the definition the researcher conclude that quantitative design in research use experimental variable.

    1. Data Collection Technique

    The technique that the researcher used to collect the data was using Pre- and Post test. topic for pre-test was about the story of Malin Kundang and the topic for post-test was the story of Tangkuban Perahu (Sangkuriang).

    c.  Data Analysis Technique

    The data gotten from pre-test and post-test were analyzed and calculated by using statistical calculation of t-test formula to find out the effectiveness of Dictogloss technique in teaching writing of narrative text.

    • Normality Test

    Normality test is used to know whether the data are normally distributed or not. The researcher used Liliefors to do normality test. The criteria used to see the normality of data are as follows:

    Ho : Lmax ≤ Ltable = Data are normally distributed

    H1 : Lmax > Ltable = Data are not normally distributed

     

    Note:

    Ho = Data are normally distributed

    H1 = Data are not normally distributed.

     

    • Homogeneity Test

     

    Homogeneity test is used to know the similarity of the two conditions or population and to know whether both groups, experimental class and controlled class, are homogeneous or not. The researcher used Fisher test/ F test. The formula used is as follows:

    References

    Harmer, Jeremy. How to Teach English. Essex: Pearson Education. 2007.

    Raymond, James C. Writing (Is an Unnatural Act). New York: Harper and Row Publishers. 1980.

    Wiersma, William and Stephen G Jurs.Research Method in Education 9th Ed. Boston: Pearson Education,Inc. 2009

    Mustikasari, Dewi Wahyu.(2001). E-mail Group to Improve Student’s Writing Habit, Why Not?. Lensa Vol. I, No. 1

     

    No Comments
  • THE USE OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING APPROACH TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ABILITY IN WRITING ARGUMENTATIVE TEXT
    (An Experimental Research Design on second grade of MA Negeri Salatiga in the year of academic 2016/2017)

     

    Novi Khofidoh_113-13-135_E Class

    Introduction

    Creating a written text in the type of argumentative genre often becomes more difficult for students than creating other written text types. The problem that may appears including the students’ ability to convey their ideas and opinion then present them in the organized way, particularly in writing argumentative text. Students often confuse to compose what topic they want to make out and present it with some argumentations both pros and cons in a text. They also often faced some difficulties to make some logical arguments relate to their topic to pursue the reader and also change their perceptions about the topic. It is happened as the causal of the topic in argumentative text must included pros and cons.

    Taking from Kaifa ( 2000: 3 ) the process of teaching learning is a complex phenomenon. How success teachers can be measured from the students feed back to the teaching learning process. If students able to enjoy the situation created in the class, they will get high motivation to study more, and it will not just happen in the inside of the classroom but also outside. Student’s motivation will support them to study whenever and wherever they are.

    Furthermore, according to Fox (1998) as quoted by Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari informs that

    “motivation is always a key issue in the field of education. As instructors, we are all naturally attempting to present a system of education that is intrinsically motivating rather than one in which the motivation comes from outside influences.”

     

    Therefore, choosing an excellent way to connect to the content of knowledge with the context of application is necessary urgent as Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari ideas about the new paradigm in writing which states “ the new paradigm of writing pay attention on student’s need of learning experience on the process to produce the product” this idea is supported by Samara (2001:168) “ the main feature of this writing classroom is multiple drafts writing process with teacher mediating to help students generate ideas and define purpose”.

    Finally, since all reason above occur the writer attempt to use contextual teaching and learning to see students score before and after using it and also see how it indicates different significant results.

     

    Objectives of study

    This study will be conducted to see students score before and after using it and also see how it indicates different significant results. Therefore, the writer can classify weather this approach effectives to enhance students’ ability in writing argumentative text.

     

    Hypothesis

    The writer propose two hypothesis, they are alternative hypothesis (Ha) and Null hypothesis (Ho). Ha: There is a significant effect in using contextual teaching and learning on students’ ability in writing an argumentative text. Ho: There is no a significant effect in using contextual teaching and learning on students’ ability in writing an argumentative text.

    Literature Review

    Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach is first conducted by John Dewey, at the turn of the 20 century, a progressivism, which is believed that the students will best learn if the materials are related with what they already known (prior experience), and the teaching learning process will be more productive if the students are actively involved in learning process in the classroom (Nurhadi, 2004:8).

    Nurhadi (2004: 9) explains that the Theory of Cognitive has also influenced the philosophy of CTL. It is because student will learn best if they actively involved in the classroom activities and have a chance to inquire the material by them. Therefore, students will show their learning achievement through the real things they can perform. Based on two theories above, the philosophy of CTL is developed. CTL is proven as the concept that incorporates much in cognitive science research. It is also a reaction from behaviorism theory that has dominated the US education for many decades.

    What is Contextual Teaching and Learning?

    CTL is a way or a conception of teaching and learning which have students to get better understanding about knowledge as they relate the subject matter to the real world situation and also motivate students to connect and implant all aspects of learning into their roles in real life. It means that teacher must present the students’ real world inside the classroom to make any sense to the subject matter.

    The SSE Instructional Design Series (2007, p. 2) articulates several characteristics of contextualized learning frameworks including: 1) problem-solving within realistic situations, 2) learning in multiple contexts, 3) content derived from diverse work and life situations and 4) authentic assessment. More broadly, Johnson describes CTL as a “holistic system” (2002, p. 24)

    Methodology

    Research Method

    This experimental study made use of a survey design on the level of implementation to measure the score result of pre and post-test in using CTL to enhance students’ writing ability in writing argumentative text considering its quantitative nature.

    Research Respondents

    This study focuses on second grade of MA Negeri Salatiga, who had joined English lesson in the school. They are language department students who had study about language frequently.

    In this study the researcher selects the participants and divided them into two groups. They are experimental and control group. Both of group consists of 30 students.

    Research instruments

    The researcher use pre test and post test as the measurement of the learning. Pre Test and Post Test is measurement of the learning received during the class as a result of comparing what the student knew before in a pre-test and after the class experience in a post-test. Then, use rubric assessment to score students’ result in composing argumentative text to compare the score between pre test and post test, the statistical analysis of data is applied.

    Research procedures

    First, the researcher gives the students pre test, then, calculates it and finally analyzes it. Second, the researcher gives the students post test, then, calculates it and analyzes it. And finally, comparing both pre and post test to find the result of study.

    Data Collection

    The researcher use documentation and test which consist of pre test and post test to the control and subject group.

     

    Technique of Data Analysis

    1. Statistical Analysis

    After collecting the data the next step of study was analyzing the data. The researcher collected the data from pre test and pot test. Therefore, the data is taken as the result of test from pre -test and post test. In analyzing the test scores, a statistical technique is used to find out the mean score of the students by formula as follow:

    Untitled

    Explanation:

    Ma : Mean of the group A score

    Mb : Mean of the group B score

    Xa : Deviation of the individual score from Ma

    Xb : Deviation of the individual score from Mb

    na  : number of students in class A

    nb  : number of students in class B

    Then, the result is consulted with t-table. If the calculation is more than/ same with t-table, it means that there is a significant difference between the two groups. If the calculation is less than t-table, it means that there is no significant difference between them.

    References

    Arifin. M, Barnawi.2015.Teknik Penulisan Karya Ilmiah. Ar-Ruzz Media: Jogjakarta.

    Zakiyah siti, (2011) improving students’ reading comprehension of descriptive text throught contextual teaching and learning (CTL), Skripsi, Universitas Islam Negeri: Jakarta

    Nur Rohmawati Laeliyah (2012) The Influence of The Aplication of Contextual Teaching and Learning(CTL) Approach On The Students Ability in Writing A Descriptive Text At Eighth Grade of SMP Negeri Krangkeng. Thesis, IAIN Syek Nurjati: Cirebon.

    Ton Mooij, (2004)Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education, Radboud University Nijmegen, ITS, P.O. Box 9048, 6500 KJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands Received 2 September 2004; accepted 29 November 2004

    Susilorini Tiningsih, Sherlinda Octa, Yuniarsa, (2014), WRITING SKILLS ENHANCEMENT USING THE CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING (CTL) APPROACH IN JAYAPURA, Faculty of Economic and Business, University of Brawijaya, International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Vol. 5, Issue 2 (Dec.) ISSN 2289-1552

    Spring 2009, Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Faculty Primer, A Review of Literature and Faculty Practices with Implications for California Community College Practitioners, Funded by the Chancellor’s Office of the California Community

    Mustikasari, Dewi Wahyu.(2011) Email Group to Improve Student’s Writing Habit, Why not?, LENSA, Vol. 1,1,1.

     

    No Comments
  • THE USE OF PILING UP EVENT TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ NARRATIVE WRITING SKILL

    (A Classroom Action Research of Tenth Grade Students of SMA N 1 Ambarawa in the Academic Year of 2016/2017

     

    Background

    One of the characteristic of English language learning is the learners should master four skills. There are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those four skills are connected each other. The first skill that human acquired is listening, they listen to the language, then try to speak use that language to improve their speaking skill. Reading is the next process where human can understand the structure of a text. The last is writing, the process that human can practice to express their thought in well structure written language.

    In senior high school, English is a well-known thing because students have learned it since they were in junior high school. According to KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat SatuanPendidikan), senior high school students are expected to be able to utter meaning in form of functional short written text and simple essay form of recount, narrative and procedure in daily context. Writing skill is also being an activity that they often do. So, ideally senior high school students can compose a good text. But, the fact, there are some students who have difficulties in writing. One of the difficult texts to write is narrative text.

    Based on the observation in the classroom of first grade students of SMAN 1 Ambarawa 2016/2017, the researcher found that students got difficulties in writing narrative text, such as they face difficulties to create a story and have problem in implementing their idea in written text. Weismer in Traxler and Grensbacher (2006) stated that psycholinguistics concern the processes underlying the production, perception, and comprehension of language. Therefore, other difficulty in writing narrative text for students because usually the teachers in there used a monotone way when they teach narrative writing text. The teachers just give an example of narrative text to be read. Then ask the students to compose a narrative text by their selves without any stimulant or clues. It makes students feel bored; they don’t interested to follow the class (less enthusiasm). According to Mustikasari (2011) student needs an enjoyable environment to become a good writer. So teacher has to create a good situation to increase students’ enthusiasm, for example by using a new technique in teaching. Mustikasari (2011:36) stated that it is good for teacher to provide something fresh that can make the students enjoy the learning process and choose the most appropriate method, approach, and teaching’s material in accordance with students’ need rather than giving a lot of homework and test.

    Realizing this lack the writer thinks that piling up event technique is really good way for students to improve their skill in writing narrative text. Not only improve their writing skill but also help them to improve their imagination, enthusiasm, and learn how to say something in written language. Based on those explanations, the writer is interested in searching the influence of piling up event technique toward narrative writing skill. According to Penny Ur (2009:200) piling up event technique is a technique to teach writing that each student is given a verb then they should continue teacher’s sentence in order to make a good story. By using this technique, students will be more active and participate in the writing class and their enthusiasm will be increase.

    There are the research questions which will be answered though this research:

    1. How does the implementation of piling up event technique to improve the students’ narrative writing skill?
    2. How far the use of piling up event technique can improve the students’ narrative writing skill?
    3. What are the strength and weakness use piling up event technique to improve the students’ narrative writing skill?

    Methodology

    The subject of the study is the students of tenth grade in SMAN 1 Ambarawa in the academic year 2015/2016, especially class X 1. The subject consists of 36 students, 15 male and 21 females. This research will be conducted in a Classroom Action Research (CAR), aimed to solve problems through direct application in the classroom and improving outcomes of teaching and learning. According to Jaedun (2008), CAR is type of research which is done by teacher in order to enhance learning quality through methods, approaches, media, technique, etc. It consists of four steps: planning, action, observation, and reflection.

    In collecting data, the researcher uses some technique. These are test, observation, questionnaire, and documentation. Here, the researcher used pre-test and post-test. The researcher observed the situation of the class during the action conducted by filling the observation sheets. The observation was done to know the students’ activity based on the problems faced by the students. Questionnaire used to gain data from the students’ response about the teaching strategy applied. The questionnaire consisted of five questions and it was in the form of multiple choices. The documentation used by the writer is notes to record the data observation and camera to perpetuate the process of observation.

    The researcher will analyze the data by using two techniques; those are descriptive technique and statistical technique. A descriptive technique is used to know the students’ behavior during the teaching learning process. A statistical technique is used to summarize data using numbers. To be able to know whether there is a significant improvement or not between pre-test and post-test, the writer using t-test after calculate the standard deviation (SD).

    BIBLIOGRAPHIES

    Jaedun, Amat. (2008). Prinsip-Prinsip Penelitian Tindakan. Makalah Pelatihan PTK Bagi Guru di Propinsi DIY. Yogyakarta: Lembaga Penelitian UNY.

    Mustikasari. D. W. (2011). E-Mail Group to Improve Students’ Writing Habit, Why Not?. Lensa, 1(1).

    Ur, Penny. (2009). A Course in Language Teaching, second edition. UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Traxler, M. J. & Gernbacher, M. A. (2006). Handbook of Psycholinguistics. USA: Elseiver.

     

     

     

     

     

    No Comments
  • THE USE OF LISTENING ENGLISH SONGS TO IMPROVE STUDENT VOCABULARY MASTERY OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENT OF MAN SEMARANG 1 IN ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2015/2016

    Siti Nurul Taufiqi Rahmah

    D Class

    113 – 12 – 058

    1. Background of the Study

    Language is one of the most important things in communication and it is used as a communication among the nations in all over the world. As an international language, English is very important and has many interrelationships with various aspects of life owned by human being. In Indonesia, English considered as the first foreign language and taught formally from elementary school up to the university level.

    The most often become to complain is the teachers ability in applying appropriate approaches, methods, strategies or techniques in teaching or learning. So, many students are not interest in learning English. Therefore, the English teach suggested in order to be able mastering of method, such as, Nababan (1991: 4) notices that a qualified teacher is the teacher who is able to suit best method or technique to the material that is being taught.

    English teaching involves of four language skills, they are Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. In teaching and learning a language, there are four aspects that support four language skills above such as: grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation that are also taught in English teaching and learning process. Something new and fresh can make student will be interesing to study English. quoted by Mustikasari (2011) it is a good idea if teacher can provide something fresh that can make student enjoy the learning process. It will motivate to keep listening teacher’s explanation.

    Song

    1. Problem of the Study

    Based on the background of study above, the problem of the study is as follows:

    1. How far the student vocabulary mastery of the first year student of MAN Semarang 1?
    2. To what extent is the effect of the use of listening english songs to improve student vocabulary mastery of the first year student of MAN Semarang 1?
    3. Objective of the Study

    Based on the problem of the study, this particular study aimed at finding out:

    1. How far the student vocabulary mastery of the first year student of MAN Semarang 1
    2. The effect of the use of listening english songs to improve student vocabulary mastery of the first year student of MAN Semarang 1

     

    1. Method of the Study

    The recent study was an experimental research to find out the result of a certain technique. According to hadi (1988: 56) that is an experimental design is one of the precise methods to examine the cause and effect because of the fact, instruction toward a group and experimental sample. The instructional activity was designed only to teach reading skill students by using Think aloud strategy as a techniques toward the experimental group, the group of sample would have test to measure the effect that students get after treatment. The result of the test would be analyzed and compare using statistical computation.

     

    1. Analysis

    This study is a Classroom Action Research (CAR), describe action research is a systematic and collaborative effort aimed to solving classroom problems. This has been a surprisinglydurable definition that has stood the test of time, even though some recently prefer to downplay the element of problem solving in action research in order to emphasize the importance of techer reflection for understanding their student culture of learning. (Kemmis and Mc Taggart;2003:2).

    1. Technique of Collecting Data

    The instrument in this research consist pre test and post test. The writer will give spoken test and written test.
    Research Step:

    • Decide the subject of the research
    • Decide the experimental class
    • Give the student pre test
    • Give the student treatment
    • Give the student post test
    • Examining the result of the test ( pre test and post test )
    • Testing the hypothesis by comparing the outcome of pre test and post test.

     

    1. Technique of Data Analysis

    The technique of data analysis, will be used here is statistical analysis that is descriptive analysis.

     

    REFERENCE

    Arikunto, Suharsimi, dkk.2009. penelitian tindakan kelas. Jakarta: PT Bumi Akasara

    French Allen,Virginia. 2000. Teaching Technique in Teaching Vocabulary. New York

    Mustikasari, D. W. (2011). E-Mail Group to Improve Student’s Writing Habit, Why Not?..

    Mofareh Alqahtani, Saudi Arabia. 2015. The of vocabulary in language learning and how to be taught. International journal of teaching education.

     

     

    No Comments
  • DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERROR IN WRITING RECOUNT ESSAY  

    (a qualitative research of the 11th grade students in MA Al-Bidayah Candi, Bandungan, Semarang regency in the Academic Year of 2017/2018)

    Name                           : Nur Tsaqib                Subject/ class   : Psycholinguistics/ D

    Student’s number        : 113-13-033                Lectured by     : Mrs. Rr Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari, S.S., M.Pd.

    A. Background of study

    People are more aware how important the language is. Language is means of communication, which helps people to interact, express, and communicate their ideas. The use of language can not be separated from human life because it is a tool that is used by people in speaking or writing. Corder (1962: 20) states that language is an object like a tool, which we can pick up, use for some purposes, and put down again. By using language, we can ask other people to do something, exchange our ideas, and can communicate each other about out plans in the future or experiences.

    Since English is foreign language, it is realized that most Indonesian students generally get some difficulties in learning it. The difficulties occur when they lack of knowledge about vocabulary and grammar. In fact, they have to master the language skills, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing because the goal of learning English is to use it in spoken and written communication.

    Writing is a basic and very important language skill because it is integral to the learning process and it can improve the students’ academic performances but it can not be learned in a short time. According to Vallete (1985: 81), writing skill requires more capabilities than other language skills and need special preparation. According to Hamer (2007: 113) as quoted by Mustikasari, Students’ Awareness of Characters Building in Writing Class (2011: 51-52) “Many students either think or say that they cannot, or do not want to write. From: Miles (1982: 4), writing process is easier than speaking process because people who write something have time to think the idea and find out the right words and expressed it in to writing. It means that the students should choose suitable words to be arranged in to sentences and determine the right verb that is suitable to the tense. It also means that the students have time to prepare their writing such as the topic that they are going to write, to revise and rearrange into a good composition. Although it is easier than speaking but the students still say that writing is difficult because the English rules are very complicated and they differ from their native language rules. They still use Indonesian English in their sentences. In fact, a wrong sentence can disturb the meaning of the sentence. Micheal Braganza (1998: 14) says that by breaking the fundamental rules and grammar, our ideas become wrong, the sentences become erroneous and we stand self-condemned. Furthermore, they recall their memories to apply it when they need it to produce a product of learning such as texts (for writing product of learning), Mustikasari, Students’ Awareness of Characters Building in Writing Class (2014: 2).

    The difficulties in applying the rules of the language in writing cause the students to make errors. According to fries and Lado, error is a failure to respond a particular stimulus automatically. It occurs when the features of the eight language is different from the learners’ native language. The students’ errors can be classified into linguistic errors. Dulay (1982: 146) state that there are four taxonomies that are important to consider, namely the linguistic category taxonomy, the surface strategy taxonomy, comparative analysis taxonomy, and the communicative taxonomy. While Richards (1974) concludes that writing errors made by the students are caused by two factors, they are Interlingua and intralingua. Interlingua factor occurs when they make deviant sentence from mother tongue. Intralingua factor occurs when they lack grammatical knowledge in the target language. He also points out that complex rule learning is typically characterized by overgeneralization, ignorance of rule restriction, incomplete application of rule and false concept hypothesized.

    B. Statements of The Problem

    Based on the background of study above, the statements of the problem are formulated as follows:

    1. How far is the students’ skill to making a sentence and paragraph in writing recount essay?
    2. How does students’ differentiate the formula of simple past tense and other formula in writing recount essay?
    3. How does students’ arange the sentence and choose the formula to write down their past experience in to sentences and paragraph in writing recount essay?
    4. C. METHOD OF RESEARCH 
    5. a. Types of Researches Design

    This research is using descriptive qualitative design. In descriptive qualitative research, the writer just analyzes and identifies the result of research with using data analyzing method. The data collected from MA Al-Bidayah Candi, Bandungan, Semarang regency. Object of the study of this research will be the 11th grade students in MA Al-Bidayah Candi, Bandungan, Semarang Regency in the academic year of 2017/2018

    b.  Technique of data collection

    1. Assignment paper of students (test): The method that will use in this research is test as instrument of data collection.
    2. Documentation: Documentation is to know the students’ profile.
    3. Interview: Interview is to know the difficulties of students test, it will be take after the test and the documentation having done.
    4. c. Technique of Data analysis

    After the data have been collected, the writer will be analyze the data by identifying or criticizing, analyzing and the last step is giving conclusion the common mistakes of writing recount essay. The writer will be explain and write the correct answer that is based on English grammar. It aims to know the common mistake and grammatical error using simple past tense formula.

    REFERENCES

    A Peer Reviewed International Journal – http://www.rjelal.com

    International Journal of English Language Education ISSN 2325-0887 2013, Vol. 1, No. 3

    Multimedia Learning Book by Richard E Mayer

    Mustikasari, Dewi W. (2014). Student’s Awareness of Characters Building in Writing Class. Salatiga; STAIN Salatiga Press.

    Research Journal of English Language and Literature (RJELAL)

    Sri Huning Anwariningsih, Sri Ernawati (2013). Development of Interactive Media for ICT Learning at Elementary School Based on Student Self Learning. Journal of Education and Learning.

    TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – January 2011, volume 10 Issue 1

    Vol.7(2) pp. 121-128. (http://www.csulb.edu/divisions/ aa/personnel/fcpd/resources/ge/).

    No Comments
  • Ika Yuliasstuti (Class D) (113-13-011)

    A. Background of the Study

    English as an International language has taken an important role in communication. In this era using of English in many sector of life such as education, politics, science, economics, technology, social aspect, cultural aspect and other. In the world to connect and share idea each others use English is very important and familiar for many people. Finally, People should understand and master English to increase their knowledge.
    In Indonesia, English as the foreign language which taught formally from the junior high school to university level. Nowadays, English is taught very early, start from Kindergarten and play group. It means, English must introduced earlier and make a behavior to use it. So, they can learn English easily as they learn their mother tongue. Many advantages if English giving earlier is prepare for their National Examination.
    In order to master English language, students have to improve their English skills. In English there are four skills which have to be mastered by students. They are listening, reading, speaking and writing. Students become master of English language if they can improve their four English skills. There is basic competence which to be mastery before improve four skills. Vocabulary is the most importance element which become basic competence to mastery English as a foreign language.
    Vocabulary is element of English to mastery other skill in English because a limited vocabulary in a foreign language impedes successful communication. The students who mastery vocabulary it mean that can communicate well and easy to joining in English lesson.

    Teaching words is a crucial aspect in learning a language as languages are based on words (Thornbury, 2002). It is almost impossible to learn a language without words; even communication between human beings is based on words. Both teachers and students agree that acquisition of the vocabulary is a central factor in teaching a language (Walters, 2004). Teaching vocabulary become a basic skill to learn and master in English so if teacher mastery in vocabulary. It make a easy to learn other skill in English. Teachers need to be able to master the material in order to be understood by students, and make them interested and happy in the teaching and learning process in the classroom.

    Commonly, there are several techniques about the teaching of’ vocabulary. However, there are a few things that have to be remembered by most English teachers if they want to present a new vocabulary or lexical items to their students. It means that the English teachers want students to remember new vocabulary. Then, it needs to be learn, practiced, and revised to prevent students from forgetting. Techniques employed by teachers depend on some factors, such as the content, time availability, and its value for the learners (Takač, 2008). Most of students in Senior High School (SMA) N 3 Salatiga has difficulties to memorizing the meaning of word. They forget about vocabulary that they get before. Teacher have to creative and fun in teaching English with media. So, student feel enjoy in learning process and make students is easy to learn English.

    The problem when learn and teach English, such as problem above will happens in classroom if teacher still use old techniques. So, teacher make learning process into efficient and effective condition., especially in teaching English. According to Mustikasari (36 : 2011) that students needs an enjoyable environment in teaching learning. They need good and interest media in learning process. A interesting media in learning process help students to understand and mastery lesson easily.

    Based on reason above, researcher suggest use spelling bee as a solution. Spelling bee is one of media become effective in teaching learning especially in teaching vocabulary. This media can help students to know more about vocabulary. Teacher can ask students to fin synonym and antonym of word.
    By using new media, the students will be more interested and enjoy in learning English and also they will be easier to improve the control of their vocabulary. The students were also able to remember the words of the English language easily when they often find the words in class. Thus, researchers need to apply the media to solve the problem of vocabulary in SMA N 3 Salatiga and improve students’ vocabulary in the process of learning English.
    According to the above explanation, the researchers intend to conduct a classroom action research to find out how far the method Spelling Bee can increase the vocabulary of students, entitled “THE USE OF  SPELLING BEE AS A MEDIA TO IMPROVE VOCABULARY MASTERY (An Experimental Study at Eleventh Grade in SMA N 3 Salatiga in the Academic Year 2016/2017)”

    B. Problems of the Study
    Based on background of study above, many problem appears. Some problems that can be identified are as follows:
    How is the process of teaching vocabulary by using Spelling Bee Game of the eleventh grade of SMA N 3 Salatiga in the academic year 2016/2017
    How is result Spelling Bee Game as a media improve the students vocabulary mastery of the eleventh grade of SMA N 3 Salatiga in the academic year 2016/2017 ?

    C.  Methodology

    To analyze the vocabulary mastery of the eleventh year students of SMA N 3 Salatiga in eleventh grade of academic year 2016/2017. The researcher used descriptive quantitative research, Quantitative research is an approach to the empirical study to gather, analyze, and display data in numerical form rather than narrative (Robert Donmoyer (in Given, 2008: 713). In this research the writer will takes two class there are class XI MIA 2 and XI MIA 5 of the sample on the eleventh students of SMA N 3 Salatiga. An approach that will be done by the writer as primary approach is quantitative approach to calculate score of students. The secondary approach is descriptive approach. Descriptive is describing how a technique of learning is applied and how the result can be reached. Technique of data collection will be used by the researcher to analyze the vocabulary mastery are using test, and documentation.

    The first step is pre-test, in order to get the information about the students prior vocabulary mastery and speaking skill before they are given spelling bee game in learning process. The post test is to prove the significant different score before and after word matching game is applied. To calculate two test the writer used these formulas :

    Mean

    X = (∑x)/n

    Note :

    X = Mean
    ∑n = sum of the score
    N = frequency of the students

    Deviation Standard

    SD = √((∑D^2)/N)-√((∑D^2)/N-((∑D)/N) ) 2

    T-test Calculation

    T= (∑D/n) : ( SD/√n-1)

    Percentage

    Percentage = (x2-x1)/x1x 100%

    D. References

    Alqahtani, Mofareh. 2015. The importance of vocabulary in language learning and how to be taught . International Journal of Teaching and Education, Vol. III(3), pp. 21-34., 10.20472/TE.2015.3.3.002

    Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik (edisi revisi VI). Jakarta: Rineka Cipta

    Mustikasari, Dewi Wahyu.2011. E-Mail Group to Improve Student’s Writing Habit, Why Not? . Lensa.

    Neuman & Dwyer, 2009, p. 38. International Journal of Teaching and Education Vol. III, No. 3 / 2015

    P. N. Bower & John R. Kirby 2009. Effects of morphological instruction on vocabulary acquisition. Queen’s Universisty : Kingston

    No Comments
  • IMPROVING STUDENTS’ WRITING COMPREHENSION IN DESCRIPTIVE TEXT THROUGH FLIPPED CLASSROOM MODEL

    (A Classroom Action Research at Class X of Islamic Senior High School (MAN) Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017)

    A. Background of Research
    Mastering language, especially international language is an important thing nowadays, since it can be an instrument to communicate to other people from all over the world. Moreover, people who capable of mastering another language will have better chances in doing task both in spoken or written form. According to Cowles (2011: 116) informs that “in essence, bilingual children and adults appear to be better at tasks that test these skills than monolingual speakers”. One of the recognized international languages in the world is English. Most of people in the world use English in their society to communicate. And, for comprehending English, there are four skills that must be comprehended; listening, speaking, reading and writing.
    From those skills mentioned above, writing is regarded to be the most complicated skill for students. According to Tangpermpoon (2008) “writing is considered as the most difficult skill for language learners because they need to have a certain amount of L2 background knowledge about the appropriate language use or specific lexicon with which they want to communicate to their readers”. However, Caroll (1990) states that “writing is the most important invention in human history. Writing allows us to share our communication not only with our contemporaries but also with future generations”. It can be seen that writing is holding a strategic key for human history. Many of researchers eternalize their findings or researches by writing it down in journals or books for people in the future who want to immerse themselves in previous researchers’ findings. Therefore, teacher should make comfortable atmosphere in writing learning process.
    In fact, teacher usually overlooks this aspect. Mustikasari (2011) states that “teacher is less appreciates the process of how the students can compose sentences or paragraphs. The student seems like a robot who can produce a bunch of sentences or paragraphs each time attends the writing class”. Whereas, students need pleasantness and also motivation in order to build up their self-confidence. Fox (1998) as cited by Mustikasari (2011) states that “motivation is always a key issue in the field of education”.
    However, we see different condition in our daily life. Sometimes, teacher creates uncomfortable atmosphere for students so it makes students lack of confidence to ask. Beside, teacher often waste class hour only for explaining the material. Consequently, students who have difficulties in comprehending the material do not have enough time to ask to the teacher. Therefore, a new classroom approach called “Flipped Classroom Model” is trying to be carried out by the writer.
    According to Bergmann and Sams (2012) state that “basically the concept of flipped class is this: which is traditionally done in class is now done at home, and that which is traditionally done as homework is now completed in class”. In other words the formation is inverted, the material is given a day or couple days before and students do the assignment in classroom. By applying this classroom model, teacher will have more time to discuss with students since the material have already given before and giving students more chances to explore themselves and work together with their friends in classroom. From the explanation above, the writer would like to conduct a research entitled “Improving Students’ Writing Comprehension in Descriptive Text Through Flipped Classroom Model” (A Classroom Action Research at Class X of Islamic Senior High School (MAN) Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017).

    B. Research Questions
    1. How is the process when Flipped Classroom Model is implemented in the students’ writing comprehension in descriptive text in class X of Senior High School in Salatiga?
    2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of using Flipped Classroom Model to improve writing comprehension in descriptive text in class X of Senior High School in Salatiga?
    3. How far Flipped Classroom Model improves students’ writing comprehension in descriptive text in class X of Senior High School in Salatiga?

    C. Methodology
    1. Subject of Research
    This research will be conducted in MAN Salatiga. This school is located in Wahid Hasyim Street number 12, Salatiga. This research will take the first semester of the first grade of MAN Salatiga in the academic year of 2016/2017 as respondents, specifically in Language Program Class which consists of 6 male students and 30 female students.
    2. Research Design
    The type of research design that will be used in this research is classroom action research (CAR). It is mixed from qualitative and quantitative research. According to Arikunto (2007: 2) as cited by Wafa (2013: 27) this research design is come from three words; classroom, action, and research.
    3. Technique of Data Collection
    There are four data collection in this research. (a) Observation: observation is the activity of giving total consideration to research object by the sense (Arikunto, 2006: 149). (b) Interview: interview is a dialogue which is going to conduct by the writer as interviewer and the students as interviewee. (c) Documentation: documentation is used to get the data or information that relate with the research. (d) Test: in this classroom action research, the writer will give students pre- and post- test in order to measure students’ ability in writing descriptive text.
    4. Technique of Data Analysis
    a. Descriptive Technique
    Descriptive technique is used to find out students’ participation in teaching and learning process. In descriptive technique the writer will use field note to record all of the activities in classroom.
    b. Statistical Technique
    Statistical technique is used to know students’ result of pre-test and post-test from two cycles. This technique is carrying out t-test analysis. The steps as follow;
    a. Standard Deviation (SD)
    The writer will calculate SD with the formula as follows;
    sd
    b. T-test
    After calculating the formula from SD, the writer will calculate t-test with the formula as follows;

    ttest
    References
    Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2006). Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta. PT. Rineka Cipta.
    Bergmann, Jonathan & Sams, Aaron. (2012). Flip Your Classroom: reach every student in every class every day. United States. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.
    Caroll, Robert Todd. (1990). Student Success Guide – Writing Skills. United States. International Copyright Law.
    Cowles, H. Wind. (2011). Psycholinguitics 101. New York. Springer Publishing Company, LLC.
    Mustikasari, Dewi Wahyu (2011). E-mail Group to Improve Student’s Writing Habit, Why Not?. LENSA Volume 1, 35-41.
    Tangpermpoon, Thanatkun. (2008). Integrated Approaches to Improve Students Writing Skills for English Major Students. ABAC Journal, 28, 1-9.
    Wafa, Zaenul. (2013). The Use of Students Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) to Improve Listening Comprehension of the Second Grade Students of SMAN 2 Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2012/2013. Salatiga. STAIN Salatiga.

    No Comments
  • null

    THE COMPARATIVE BETWEEN TEXTBOOK AND ELECTRONIC BOOK TOWARD STUDENTS’ READING SKILL

    (A Study For Fourth Semester Students of IAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017)

    Aris Nazillah, E, 113-13-136

     A. Background of Research

    English is an international language which is used to communicate in the whole world. So that, we must learn about language. Richards and Rodgers (1986:17) argue that language is a system structurally and have meaning and it can be a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. By language, especially English, people who lives in the left side of the world can communicate with the people who lives in the right side of the world. They don’t need to have long journey to get some experiences of other country because in this era they can connect with native speaker whole country in the world and they can share experiences each other by using English.

    In order to comprehending English well, there are some important skills that have be understood well. That skills are reading, writing, listening, and speaking. All of the skills are very important and have related each other. However, there is the most influence skill for English learners that have the biggest role to understand English. The most influence skill is reading. According to Tarigan (1990) as quoted by Naim (2013:16) reading is a process to understand the writer’s massage form the passage. As we know, when we want to speak to other people we must know the vocabulary and the structure first. In order to can know some vocabularies or to gather some knowledges we must to read. Actually, reading English text is not as easy as what have we expect. Some learners get difficulties to understand the meaning of the text. So that, they need a guide to understand the meaning of the English text.

    In learning English process, especially reading skill, the teacher should use the appropriate method and media in order to make the students understand the material well. According to Burden and Byrd (1999:137) as informed by Rahmatullah (2011) media is a tool that be used to transfer material information. Media just used to transfer information in order to make the second people understand what we mean easily. There are some media that can be used in learning process. Mustikasari (2011:35) argues that technology’s capacity and human prosperity is well unification to reach a new progression by its benefits. So that, we can use technology as media to teach reading. Electronic book is included to technology. But here, the writer will not only explain about e-book but also textbook. According to Ministry of Education in Guideline for Approval Textbook (2006:6) textbook is printed or non-printed comprehensive learning source that be designed to espouse a substantial portion of the curriculum expectations for specific grade or for learning area. All of book in printed form and there are many text is textbook. Meanwhile e-book (electronic book), according to Borchers (1999:1) electronic book is readable textual information displayed large quantities in portable hardware and software system form that lets the user navigate through this information. Electronic book is all book that can be found in the internet. All people can access e-book easily as long as they are connecting internet.

    Beside media and method, there are some factors that influence learning success. Two of them are motivation and age factors. Chaer (2003:251) argues that motivation is a big desire that causes someone to learn a new thing. From this case is foreign language, English. We can give some motivations in each meeting. By give motivation, it may influence the students who don’t get English learning yet. Meanwhile the best age to learn English is children age, because in the childrenhood they may catch some new information or new knowledge easily. From that, by this research we can know whether appropriate media can influence the achievement of the students although they get English since their childrenhood or not.

    In the past, the teachers use textbook as media in learning process. Recently, many of them use e-book in learning process because it is easier to be found than textbook. However, the teachers are not completely sure about the effective media should be used in the learning process. So that, in this research the writer will try to find the effective media between textbook and e-book entitled “THE COMPARATIVE BETWEEN TEXTBOOK AND ELECTRONIC BOOK TOWARD STUDENTS’ READING SKILL (A Study For Fourth Semester Students of IAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017).”

    B. Problems of Research

    1. How far the textbook increases the student’s comprehending in reading skill through comparing textbook and electronic book toward students’ reading skill?
    2. How far the electronic book increases the student’s comprehending in reading skill through comparing textbook and electronic book toward students’ reading skill?
    3. How is the result of comparing textbook and electronic book toward students’ reading skill?

    C. Methodology

    1. Subject of research

    The subject of this research is the students of fourth semester of English Department of IAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2016/2017. There are approximately 200 students of fourth semester of English Department of IAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2016/2017. The population of this study is 200 students of English Department. The sample of this study is 20% of 200 students. So that, the sample of this study is 40 students of fourth semester students of English Deparment. From 40 students, the writer will take 20 students from Reading 4 class who use textbook in learning process and 20 students from Reading 4 class who use e-book in learning process.

     

    1. Research Design

    When we want to do a research, we should decide to use which type of research design. According to Harwell (2011:148) research design is well known as education term although we may find the different meaning of research design in different studies. The first step that must we take before do a research or study is decide the research design. Is it qualitative research, quantitative research, or mix between them (CAR).

    The design of this study is quantitative research. It focuses on comparative research. According to Mills et. al. (2006:621) comparative research is a study to find out the differentiate and similarity of two subject or more. The purpose of this study is not only to discover the differences of two subject or more but also to find the unique aspects of each subject. Then, from the uniques of the subjects, the writer will find the most unique aspect and effective to be used from the subject.

     

    1. Method of Data Collection

    In this study, the writer will use observation and test to collect the data. In the first, the writer will observe reading 4 class about who is the lecturer, how is the learning process, what is the media that be used (textbook or e-book), and what is the material that be learned in that class. If there is no lecturer that use the e-book for example, the writer will change the subject of the study.

    The second technique of data collection is test. After observe of the reading 4 class, the writer know what is the material that be learned in that class, so that the writer can make the instrument. Then, the writer will give test to 20 students who use textbook in learning process and 20 students who use e-book in learning process. After that, the students will compare the yield of the test.

     

    1. Method of Data Analysis

    The technique of analyzing the data of this study is t-test. The writer will analyze the result of the test by t-test. The formula of t-test is as below:

    Untitled

     X1 represents for the average of the result of textbook user, X2 represents for the average of the results of e-book user. S12 and S22 are represents for the variance of the two variables. While represents for the sum of participants variable 1 and represents for the sum of participants variable 2.

    D. References

    Borchers, Jan O. (1999). Electronic Books: Definition, Genres, Interaction Design Patterns. Linz University: Austria

    Chaer, Abdul. (2003). Psikolinguistik Kajian Teoritik. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta

    Harwell, Michael R. (2011). Research Design in Qualitative/ Quantitative/ Mixed Methods. Opportunity and Challenges in Designing and Conducting Requiry. University of Minesota

    Mills, M. Van De Bunt, G. G. Jeanne, B. (2006). Comparative Research Persistent Problems and Promising Solutions. International Sociological Association. 21(5), 619-631, DOI: 10.1177/0268580906067833

    Mustikasari, Dewi Wahyu. (2011). E-mail Group to Improve Student’s Writing Habit, Why Not?. Lensa, 1, 1, 35-41.

    Ministry of Education. (2006). Guidelines for Approval of Textbook. Retrieve from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca

    Naim, Ngainun. (2013). The Power of Reading: Menggali Kekuatan Membaca Untuk Melejitkan Potensi Diri. Yogyakarta: Aura Pustaka

    Rahmatullah, M. (2011). Pengaruh Pemanfaatan Media Pembelajaran Film Animasi Terhadap Hasil Belajar. Studi Eksperimen Pada Mata Pelajaran IPS Siswa Kels VII SMPN 6 Banjarmasin. Edisi Khusus No.1. ISSN 1412-565X

    Richards, Jack C. & Rodgers, Theodore S. (1986). Approach and Method in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    No Comments